The processes of integration taken place in the world community in all spheres of human life have affected also the sphere of education. In this process of integration of Kazakhstan universities, education and science into the world educational space, an important place is given to the academic mobility of students and teachers. At the present time the world educational space is being formed, what is expressed, first of all, in the harmonization of educational standards, approaches, curricula, specialties in different countries of the world.
In the Declaration of the First World Conference "Higher Education in the 21st Century: Approaches and Practical Measures" (Paris, 1998, UNESCO), it was noted that the solution of the most important task of the new century - improving the quality of higher education - requires higher education to have an international dimension. This involves sharing knowledge, creating interactive networks, the mobility of teachers and students, international research projects (along with taking into account national cultural values and conditions). In this regard, internationalization has begun to determine the development of higher education systems in the world.
The academic mobility of students has become of paramount importance after the publication on July 8, 2009 by the European Commission of “The Green Paper on the mobility of young people for the purpose of their education”, and has become one of the most watched and visible forms of the internationalization of higher education. In many countries, the topic of international student mobility has become one of the key in politics, both in terms of sending specialists abroad, and in terms of attracting scientists to the country or even potential emigrants with high qualifications.
At the meeting of the Ministers of Education of the Bologna Process countries in 2009, Leven / Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) formulated the idea that by 2020 no less than 20% of graduated students should have completed as well as a certain period of study at an overseas university (paragraphs 18-20 of the communiqué). Realization of this mission - activation of academic mobility of students requires active and mass participation of universities. It is connected not only with increasing the technical equipment of higher educational institutions for receiving the influx of foreign students, but also with improving the organization of the management process. This also applies to training programs that should be approximated and adapted to training programs in foreign universities, and to the daily management process that must become flexible and mobile.
In Europe, academic mobility is a demanded social, economic and political process. In this connection an analyze the trends and the level of development of academic mobility of students in European countries is interesting. The most interesting research results were published in the UNESCO Institute for Statistics collection "Study on Mapping mobility in European higher education. Brussels, 2011 " and the statistical collection of the Academic cooperation Association" The Bologna Process in Higher Education in Europe. Key indicators on the social dimension and mobility. Brussels, 2009 ". According to the information published in these sources, the number of mobile students in the last 10 years has doubled, but they still make up a small part of the total number of all foreign students (about 1%). Countries that are attractive to foreign students include Spain, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Portugal and Finland and, on the contrary, the fewest students study in the UK, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania. In the course of the research, the most "mobile" specialties were identified, including humanitarian and social sciences, business, law, construction and technical sciences. The balance analysis shows that the ratio between entry and exit mobility in Europe averages 10: 1 and only Belgium, Austria and Estonia achieve absolute mobility. The leaders in incoming mobility are Sweden and Denmark, which accept more three times students than they send to other countries.
All European countries provide substantial support for academic mobility, developing various programs, while paying more attention to outcoming mobility. Special interest is the results of the study, which make it possible to identify the main reasons that hamper the development of academic mobility. To them it is possible to carry:
- lack of information on academic mobility programs
- lack of motivation among students
- lack of financial support
- Low level of knowledge of foreign languages
- distrust of the quality of academic mobility programs
- discrepancy of training programs
- problems with visas.
At the same time, a classification was made of the factors favoring the development of academic mobility, which include individual financial support, the development of mechanisms for the successful development of educational programs (for example, ECTS and DS, the creation of "windows of mobility") and information about programs.
Special interest is the report "The Bologna process through the eyes of students", prepared by the European Union of Students, which outlines the main problems that are still unresolved. Among them are the following:
The process of linking credits with the results of training has not been carried out in all countries
When calculating the academic load of students, the opinion of teachers not students is taken into account,
When calculating the number of credits, the student's workload is not taken into account, but the status of the discipline
Contact hours remain the main tool for determining the number of loans
When switching to ECTS, there is an increase in student workload due to more components for each discipline.
Academic mobility of students and university teachers can be carried out in three main directions, traditionally differentiated by the expert community in the field of modern education. This: intra-urban mobility, in-country mobility and international mobility.